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Jowett Papers - Biographical Index

Index I - Biographical Index

[For an explanation of the conventions of this Index, see Section III of the Introduction]

Abbott , Evelyn (1843-1901), Balliol 1862, Assistant Master Clifton College, 1870-3, and Fellow of Balliol 1874-1901. Although he spent the greater part of his life confined to a wheelchair due to an athletics accident in 1866, he nonetheless obtained a considerable reputation as a Classical scholar. Today his best-known works are the Greek grammar which he wrote with Mansfield, and the biography of BJ he co-wrote with Lewis Campbell (q.v.). BJ and Abbott were close friends: it seems that BJ was instrumental in encouraging Abbott not to yield to despair after his accident and took practical steps to help (letters to Florence Nightingale [q.v.] show his efforts to get Abbott a wheelchair), Abbott's return to Balliol was also very much BJ's work. However, because they were so often in Balliol together, little evidence for their relations has survived in the Jowett papers (his volume in the Life is far more revealing). BJ appointed him one of his literary executors, and he took the senior role in the writing of the biography. Many of his work notes and drafts are preserved in the Jowett papers, and we probably owe the preservation of Group I of the papers to him (see Section I of the Introduction).

Abercromby , Julia Janet Georgina, 4th Lady Abercromby (d. 1915). Sister of Robert Haldane-Duncan, 3rd Lord Camperdown (q.v.), who married the 4th Lord Abercromby in 1858. Artist (exhibited at R.A. 1888), whose portrait of BJ, painted in 1892, was reckoned to be an especially good likeness. She probably met BJ through her brother, and although very little is said of her in the biographies, the fact that she was the recipient of some of his more personal letters suggests that she became a close friend of BJ.

Acland , Sir Henry Wentworth (1815-1900), Radcliffe Librarian 1851-1900, Curator of Oxford University Galleries and of the Bodleian Library, Regius Professor of Medicine 1858-1894. Influential scientist, with special interest in medical matters. He did much to reform the teaching of medicine and other sciences in Oxford, and took a leading role in the campaigns to build the University Museum and the Radcliffe Science Library. Although he and BJ first met in 1844 through the agency of Sir Benjamin Brodie the younger (q.v.), there was little friendship between them for most of their lives; indeed some of BJ's references to him in letters suggests that he actively disliked him. Only during BJ's Vice-Chancellorship did both men become good friends, and Acland did much to look after BJ's declining health in his last years.

Anson , Sir William Reynell, 3rd Bt. (1843-1914), Balliol 1862, Fellow of All Souls 1867, Vinerian Reader in English Law, Oxford, 1874, Warden of All Souls 1881-1904 and Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Education 1902-5. Lawyer and author of legal textbooks (his Principles of the English Law of Contract has remained in print, with frequent revisions, to this day). A pupil of BJ's, who always stayed on excellent terms with him. He was a pall-bearer at BJ's funeral.

Arnold , Matthew (1822-88) Balliol 1841, Poet and Critic. It seems that BJ taught Arnold as an undergraduate (three of Arnold's Latin prose compositions are preserved at II A1/2/1), and they were on close terms then. Although little evidence survives in either the Jowett Papers or the biographies concerning their relationship, it seems that Arnold visited Balliol not infrequently, and BJ expressed deep sorrow at his death, considering him among his best friends.

Asquith , Herbert Henry, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith (1852-1928), Balliol 1870, and Fellow 1874-1882. Prime Minister 1908-1916. As an undergraduate at Balliol, and then a Fellow, he came into contact with BJ, and they stayed on good terms until BJ's death.

Asquith , Emma Alice Margaret 'Margot' (née Tennant) (1864-1945). second wife of H.H. Asquith, and famous society hostess. She was introduced to BJ in 1887 by Lady Wemyss (q.v.), and a warm friendship grew up between them, with some of BJ's letters to her showing a surprising flirtatiousness. A few of her letters to BJ are also preserved. Chapter VII of her Autobiography provides an engaging account of their friendship.

Baden-Powell , Major Baden Fletcher Smyth (1860-1937). Son of Baden Powell (q.v.) and BJ's godson. Soldier, who served in the Boer War and the 1st World War, and aeronautical pioneer. He was for a while President of the Aeronautical Society. Robert Baden-Powell, founder of the Boy Scout movement, was his brother (note: it seems that Powell's children and widow all incorporated his Christian name into his surname).

Bastard , Edmund Rodney Pollexfen (1825-1856), Balliol 1842. Landowner at Kilton, Devon. His early death means that little is known about him, but he seems to have been among BJ's favoured early pupils. Copies of two of his letters to F.T. Palgrave (q.v.), which give interesting accounts of BJ in the late 1840s are at I F10/44.

Bethell , Rt. Hon. Sir Richard, 1st Baron Westbury (1800-1873), Solicitor-General 1852, Attorney-General 1856, Lord Chancellor 1861-5. A zealous legal reformer, noted for his sharp wit and sharper tongue, who had to resign as Lord Chancellor over alleged abuses of his office. As a member of the Judicial Committee to hear appeals on Essays and Reviews, he took a leading role in acquitting all the defendants, although it was not until Westbury's last years, that BJ and he became acquainted, whereupon they became close friends, visiting each other regularly. He was also on good terms with Westbury's daughter, Augusta Nash [1] (d.1931), who provides lively reminiscences of BJ (I E22/9), including an anecdote of his running a race with her.

Bismarck , Otto, Prince von (1815-1898), Chancellor of Prussia, and then of the German Empire until 1890. BJ refers to Bismarck many times in his letters, especially those to Robert Morier (q.v.), who seems to have had something of a vendetta against Bismarck.

Blackie , Prof. John Stuart (1809-1895). Regius Professor of Humanity, Marischal College, Aberdeen 1839-52, Professor of Greek, University of Edinburgh 1852-82. Classical scholar, with interests in Scottish history and culture, well-known for his eccentric character. Several letters from BJ to him survive, but they seem to have been only on distant terms, as shown by an anecdote about them reported in Abbott and Campbell Vol. I p.399, where Blackie is the recipient of one of BJ's more crushing snubs.

Blackwood , Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (1826-1902), Under-Secretary for India 1864-6, and at the War Office 1866-8, Governor-General of Canada 1872-8, Ambassador at St. Petersburg 1879-81 and at Constantinople 1881-4, Viceroy of India 1884-8 and Ambassador at Rome 1889-91 and at Paris 1891-6. Diplomat. BJ and Dufferin seem to have come into contact over their shared interest in Indian matters, and seem to have been on friendly terms with each other.

Bowen , Charles Synge Christopher, Baron Bowen of Colwood (1835-94) Balliol 1854, Fellow of Balliol 1857-62 (the last undergraduate to be made a Fellow), Judge 1879, Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1893 and Visitor of Balliol 1885-94. Despite delicate health, Bowen was one of the best respected judges of his day, noted for the depth of his knowledge and the elegance of his language. BJ and Bowen first became friendly when Bowen was an undergraduate, and Bowen became one of BJ's closest friends in the judiciary (his appointment as Visitor in 1885 shows this). After BJ's death, it seems that Bowen was to have played a major role in the planned official biography, but his untimely death prevented this. Some letters from him in the Strachan-Davidson papers at Balliol show that he was already very critical of Lewis Campbell's (q.v.) role in it.

Brackenbury , Miss Hannah (1795-1873) Benefactress of Balliol, thanks to whose generosity the Brackenbury Buildings in Balliol were built. BJ seems not to have known her well (most of her dealings were with the then Master Robert Scott [q.v.]).

Bradby , Edward Henry (1827-1893) Balliol 1845, Canon of St. Albans, and Headmaster of Haileybury 1868-83. Although not one of BJ's closest friends, Bradby and he were always on good terms.

Bradley , Very Rev. George Granville (1821-1903) Master of Marlborough 1858-70, Master of University College, Oxford 1870-81, Dean of Westminster 1881-1902 (successor to A.P. Stanley [q.v.]). Distinguished schoolmaster, who did much to reform Marlborough. As Dean of Westminster, he followed A.P. Stanley (q.v.) in inviting BJ to preach at the Abbey, and they two men seem to have been good, if not intimate, friends.

Brodie , Sir Benjamin Collins (1817-80) Balliol 1834, Professor of Chemistry at Oxford 1855-72, Fellow of the Royal Society. An important scientist in the mid-19th century, best known for his rejection of atomic theory and his abortive attempts to provide an alternative, known as Chemical Calculus, to it. An exact undergraduate contemporary of BJ, they were very close friends in BJ's youth, Brodie receiving some of the best of BJ's early letters, but by c.1850 both men had drifted apart, and never seem to have recaptured their early intimacy.

Brodrick , Hon George Charles (1831-1903) Balliol 1850, Fellow of Merton 1855-1881, Warden of Merton College 1881-1903. Politician and journalist, who specialised in Land Law, and who wrote a history of the University of Oxford. Pupil and friend of BJ, and passionate supporter of his views on education. He was a pall-bearer at BJ's funeral.

Browning, Robert (1812-1889), first Honorary Fellow of Balliol 1867. Poet. BJ first met Browning in June 1865, when Browning was in Oxford to find a college for his son, and they became friends almost at once. BJ's influence ensured his election as Balliol's first Honorary Fellow. Although BJ always had mixed feelings about Browning the poet, he greatly liked and respected Browning the man, and Browning became a frequent visitor to Balliol. Browning bequeathed the MSS of his later poems to Balliol, and various other Browning memorabilia have come here too (the relevant Balliol catalogues have further details).

Bruce , Victor Alexander, 9th Earl of Elgin and 15th Earl of Kincardine (1849-1917) Balliol 1869, Viceroy of India 1894-9, Secretary of State for the Colonies 1906-8. Politician, although not wholly successful as a Viceroy, and his cautious temperament perhaps made him ill-suited to politics. Although BJ taught Lord Elgin, and seems to have taken him on reading parties, there is very little evidence concerning their views on each other, certainly far less than there is for the warm friendship between BJ and and another Balliol Viceroy, Lord Lansdowne (q.v.).

Butler , Henry Montague (1833-1918), Headmaster of Harrow School 1859-85, Dean of Gloucester 1885-6, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge 1886-1918. Distinguished educationalist. BJ and he do not seem to have met often, but BJ had a high opinion of Butler.

Butler , Mrs. Josephine Elizabeth (1828-1906). Campaigner for the rights of women, with especial concern over education and prostitution. BJ visited her and her husband frequently when they lived in Oxford, and their concerns over education gave them a point of contact. Mrs. Butler respected BJ greatly, and her reminiscences of him (I E22/2) are very revealing of his views on sex, but BJ himself, although he was conscious of her gifts, did not sympathise with her radical approaches to the causes she championed.

Caird , Edward, (1835-1908) Balliol 1860 (Snell Exhibitioner), Professor of Moral Philosophy at Glasgow University 1866-93, Master of Balliol 1893-1907. Philosopher much influenced by Hegel and Kant, and leading campaigner for women's education. BJ taught him as an undergraduate, introducing him to Hegel, and they remained on good terms, although Caird was never as close as some of BJ's other Scottish friends, such as Lewis Campbell or Sir Alexander Grant (qq.v.). After BJ's death Caird was elected his successor, apparently because of his liberal reputation, He took great interest in the writing of Abbott and Campbell's biography, sometimes to the point of what Campbell considered interference.

Campbell , Prof. Lewis (1830-1908), Balliol 1849, Professor of Greek at St. Andrews 1863-1892, Honorary Fellow of Balliol 1894. A distinguished classical scholar in his day, especially for his work on Greek tragedy, he has now been overshadowed in this field by his contemporary Sir Richard Jebb (q.v.), and perhaps his best known work is the biography of BJ which he co-wrote with Evelyn Abbott (q.v.). BJ taught him, and their ensuing friendship was lifelong. BJ wrote many letters to him (preserved in the Jowett papers), and visited him and his wife Fanny in St. Andrews and London whenever he could. BJ and he gave each other much advice on their respective publications, and they collaborated on an edition of Plato's Republic, BJ doing the commentary, Campbell the text, This was, however, not published until 1894. He was one of BJ's literary executors. Many of Campbell's working notes, including his letters to Abbott, which give an insight into his sensitive and easily-hurt temperament, are preserved in the Jowett papers.

Carlyle , Thomas (1795-1881), Essayist and historian. It is still unclear whether he and BJ ever met, but BJ often discusses him in letters and notebooks (and others noted down his opinions in conversations with them). In these BJ makes clear his admiration for Carlyle's prose style, and his detestation for his thought.

Carpenter , Rt. Rev. William Boyd (1841-1918), Canon of Windsor 1882-4, Bishop of Ripon 1884-1911, Founder of Ripon Hall 1898, Royal Chaplain from 1879. Prolific writer on theology, who had somewhat liberal views. It is not known how BJ and he met, but he was high among BJ's friends in the latter's last years.

Cecil , Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830-1903), Prime Minister 1885-6, 1886-1892 and 1895-1902 and Chancellor of Oxford University 1869-1903. It was in his capacity as Chancellor that Salisbury had dealings with BJ, especially when BJ was Vice-Chancellor in 1882-6. However, relations between them were never more than politely formal; BJ made it clear (in private) that he had little time for Salisbury on the whole.

Chitty , Sir Joseph William (1828-1899) Balliol 1847, Judge 1881 and Lord Justice of Appeal 1897. Lawyer specialising in the Chancery Division. Like Lord Bowen and Sir Robert Wright (qq.v.), one of BJ's judicial friends, who first met BJ when he was an undergraduate. He was not, however, as close to BJ as Bowen or Wright.

Clough , Arthur Hugh (1819-1861) Balliol 1837. Poet. Very little direct evidence survives concerning his relations with BJ, but hints remain to show that BJ thought highly of him. Contemporaries agree that they first met as undergraduates and became good friends, and it was through Clough that BJ first made contact with Florence Nightingale (q.v.) Perhaps the most significant evidence for BJ's regard for Clough is that he told James Murray (q.v.) that had he had a son, he would have called it Arthur after Clough and A.P. Stanley (q.v.).

Cobbe , Frances Power (1822-1904), Author on religion and philosophy, and philanthropist. It is unclear how BJ and Miss Cobbe met, but they did exchange letters, and seem to have been on good terms.

Colenso , Rt. Rev. John William (1814-1883), Bishop of Natal 1853-83. Liberal theologian, whose doubts on the historicity of the Pentateuch brought down severe persecution from the authorities. It is not surprising that BJ, another liberal victim of church wrath, should have known Colenso, and been sympathetic towards him. Colenso occasionally visited BJ, and when in 1874 the Bishop of Oxford forbade Colenso to preach in Carfax Church, BJ invited him to preach at Balliol instead (A & C Vol II 64). However, they never seem to have been close friends.

Coleridge , Ernest Hartley (1846-1920) Balliol 1866, Private Tutor 1872-93. Grandson of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and man of letters. A pupil of BJ's who always stayed a friend.

Coleridge , Sir John Duke, 1st Baron Coleridge (1820-1894) Balliol 1838, Solicitor General 1868, Attorney General 1871, Chief Justice of Common Pleas 1873-80, Chief Justice of Queen's Bench 1880-94. Lawyer, well known for his charm in private life. A contemporary of BJ at Balliol, and an unwitting participant in the Essays and Reviews controversy, Coleridge was also a good friend of BJ. The Jowett papers show that he visited BJ at Balliol, and the commonplace books have notes of many conversations between them. There is, too, a charming letter of thanks to BJ for a copy of his 1892 Plato, as well as poignant messages from Coleridge regretting that he could not come to BJ's funeral because of illness.

Collins , Professor John Churton (1848-1908), Balliol 1868, Tutorial coach 1880-1907, Professor of English at Birmingham University 1904-8. Editor of English Literature, journalist and man of letters. He was greatly interested in the question of university extension, and was a leading figure in the successful campaign for the creation of a final honour school in English at Oxford. He met BJ as an undergraduate, and they became, and remained, close friends.

Conington , John (1825-1869), Professor of Latin at Oxford 1854-69. Classical scholar, best known for his commentary on Virgil. Although he and BJ were made professors of Latin and Greek respectively at the same time, BJ clearly disliked Conington, and the feeling was probably returned.

Courthope , John Bryan (d. 1844). BJ's uncle by marriage on his mother's side. A & C describe him as a 'stationer etc.' (Vol I p.13)

Craig Sellar , Alexander (1835-1890), Balliol 1854, Advocate and politician. Younger brother of W.Y. Sellar (q.v.), who incorporated his second Christian name into his surname. His wife, Gertrude, was related to Florence Nightingale (q.v.). A pupil of BJ's, who, like his brother, always remained a close friend, and whom BJ frequently saw in Scotland. It should be warned that it is not always easy to tell Alexander apart from his brother in BJ's references to them.

Cross , Sir Richard Assheton, 1st Viscount Cross (1823-1914), Home Secretary 1874-80 and 1885-6, Secretary for India 1886-92 and Lord Privy Seal 1895-1900. Politician. Although not a brilliant orator, Cross had a good reputation for his efficiency. He and BJ came into contact when Cross was India Secretary, and there are several letters in the Jowett Papers from BJ to him concerning the education of candidates for the Indian Civil Service, in which BJ took a great interest.

Curzon , Hon. George Nathaniel, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (1859-1925), Balliol 1878, Under-Secretary of State for India 1891-2, and for Foreign Affairs 1895-8, Viceroy of India 1898-1905, Lord Privy Seal 1915, Member of the War Cabinet 1916-18, Foreign Secretary 1919-24 and Chancellor of Oxford University 1907-25. Statesman. Curzon has become one of the most famous examples of someone generally thought worthy of being Prime Minister who never achieved the position. Little is known of his relationship with BJ.

Dicey , Albert Venn (1835-1922) Balliol 1854, Vinerian Professor of English Law 1882-1909. Eminent jurist and historian of English Law. BJ and Dicey were always on good terms, and even when he was Professor at All Souls, Dicey taught Balliol law undergraduates.

Disraeli , Benjamin, Lord Beaconsfield (1805-1881), Prime Minister 1868 and 1874-80. BJ and Disraeli seem to have met not infrequently when guests at the same house, but they were never even on such terms as BJ was with Gladstone (q.v.), and BJ never quite trusted Disraeli anyway.

Döllinger , Dr. Johann Joseph Ignaz von (1799-1890), theologian whose views brought him into conflict with the Catholic Church. BJ and he met occasionally during BJ's visits to Germany.

Drummond , Lady Henrietta Blanche, 7th Lady Airlie (1830-1921), daughter of Henrietta, Lady Stanley of Alderley, sister of Edward Lyulph Stanley (qq.v), and wife of David Graham Drummond, 7th Earl of Airlie (1826-1881). It seems that Lady Airlie and BJ became acquainted when her brother went up to Balliol, and BJ got to know his family. By the late 1860s, BJ had become a close friend of Lady Airlie and her husband, and whenever he visited Scotland, he seems to have made a point of staying with them at Cortachy Castle, Forfar, for a few days. She provided Evelyn Abbott (q.v.) with some interesting reminiscences of BJ (I E20/11).

Dugdale , William Stratford (1828-1882), Balliol 1846, Landowner in Merevale, Derbyshire, and colliery owner who met a premature death while helping rescue miners buried in his pits after an accident. One of the early generation of BJ's pupils, Dugdale seems to have been a close friend and admirer of BJ, although little evidence for this friendship exists in the Jowett Papers. However, there is much evidence of BJ's care for Dugdale's widow and children; he continued his visits to them, and one of his sons, William Francis Stratford Dugdale, came up to Balliol in 1891.

Dyer , Louis (1851-1908) Balliol 1874, Assistant Professor of Greek, Harvard University 1881-7, after which he spent most of the rest of his life in Oxford. Classical scholar, whose house in Oxford became a valued centre for American visitors, especially after the creation of Rhodes scholarships. Although not a close friends BJ clearly took an interest in Dyer's work at Harvard, and several letters exist in which BJ gives him advice on the Greek syllabus.

Eliot , George, pseudonym of Mary Anne Evans (1819-1880). Novelist, who braved the disapproval of Victorian society by living with G.H. Lewes, without marrying him. It is unclear how she and BJ became acquainted, but they were soon on good terms, and BJ (somewhat daringly) invited her and Lewes to Balliol several times. Although no letters to her from BJ survive in the Jowett Papers, there is a moving letter from him to her on the death of Lewes in MS 394. The tone of this letter, as well as references to her in his letters to other people, and notes of their conversations in his commonplace books show that BJ's regard for 'Mrs. Lewes' (as he called her) was great. A complete set of her novels is in the Jowett library at Balliol.

Elliot , Lady Charlotte (d.1880). Presumably the wife of the Hon. F.B. Elliot, son of the 1st Earl Minto, and thus a niece by marriage of the Very Rev. Gilbert Elliot (q.v.). Not to be confused with the poetess Charlotte Elliott (1789-1871). Lewis Campbell thought (see I E8/12) that BJ and Lady Charlotte first met when she wrote a sonnet about his translation of Plato in 1871. BJ, pleasantly surprised at being the subject of a poem for the first time, sought an introduction, and often visited her at St. Andrews.

Elliot , Very Rev. Hon. Gilbert (1800-1891), Dean of Bristol 1850-1891, and associated with the Low Church wing of Anglicanism. BJ and he first became acquainted because of the similarity of their theological views, and remained on good terms all their lives. It seems possible that BJ was planning marriage to Elliot's daughter Margaret (q.v.)

Elliot , Margaret (d. 1901) daughter of Gilbert Elliott (q.v.). In the early 1860s, BJ and Margaret Elliott became very close, and it is quite probable that he was contemplating marrying her, but finally drew away. The story is told in detail in Faber pp.299-306 (A TS of Campbell's account of it, which was omitted from the final version of Abbott and Campbell, is preserved in I E24/3). Even after this diminution in intimacy, they nonetheless remained close friends until BJ's death.

Ellis , Robinson (1834-1913) Balliol 1852, Professor of Latin at University College, London 1870-6, Vice-President of Trinity College, Oxford 1879-93 and Professor of Latin 1893-1913. Classical scholar, perhaps best known for his edition of Catullus. BJ thought highly of Ellis, and they remained good friends. When Ellis, suffering from mental illness, attempted suicide in 1869, BJ was among those who tried to help him recover.

Erskine , Thomas (1788-1870), Scottish advocate and theologian, known for his moderate beliefs. It seems that BJ and Erskine first met in 1856, and the similarity of their theological beliefs made them close friends. On his visits to Scotland, BJ regularly visited Erskine at his summer residence at Linlather. Erskine is probably the old friend mentioned in several letters to Florence Nightingale of 1868 as undergoing a severe attack of 'religious melancholy', which BJ did much to alleviate.

Ewing , Alexander (1814-1873) Bishop of Argyll and the Isles 1847-73. Clergyman, on the Broad Church wing of the Episcopalians in Scotland. BJ and Ewing first met in the late 1840s (it is not clear how), and both men quickly came to admire each other greatly. Their views on theology were close, and BJ regularly visited him on his journeys to Scotland until Ewing's death, and extended his friendship to Ewing's wife and daughter Nina.

Farmer , John (1835-1901) Music teacher at Harrow 1864-85, and organist at Balliol 1885-1901. Music teacher and composer (although his compositions are now rarely if ever played). Farmer bears witness to BJ's love of music: BJ brought him to Balliol as College organist in order to encourage music there. Between them, BJ and Farmer created the Sunday series of Balliol concerts in 1885 (BJ strongly supporting Farmer against complaints of Sabbath-breaking), as well as some informal 'smoking concerts' for the weekdays. BJ had the organ in Balliol Hall built for Farmer out of his own pocket, and also had the organ in the Chapel repaired. It seems that BJ compiled a selection of verses from the Bible which Farmer set to music as a Requiem (see reference to the Palmer in the Appendix), but the present whereabouts of the score is unknown.

Farrer , Sir Thomas Henry, 1st Baron Farrer (1819-1899) Balliol 1836, Permanent Secretary to the Board of Trade 1865-86, Member of London County Council 1889-98. Civil Servant, with especial interests in the reform of commercial law. Farrer was BJ's very first pupil, and they stayed lifelong friends. Farrer frequently visited BJ at Balliol, often attending Balliol 'gatherings'. His brothers, Sir William James (1822-1911) and Frederic Willis (1829-1909), went to Balliol in 1839 and 1847 respectively, and were also taught by BJ. They too kept in frequent contact with him, Sir William became one of BJ's executors, and Frederic Farrer being able to provide some lively reminiscences of Balliol and BJ in the 1840s (I E20/7). The three Farrers are not always easy to tell apart in the Jowett papers. Lord Farrer lived at Abinger Hall, but I E21/13, a letter from Frederick, was written from there. However, even if there are occasions where defeat must be admitted, there is no doubt that BJ enjoyed good relations with all the brothers.

Fawcett , Professor Henry (1833-1884), Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge 1863-82, Postmaster General 1880-4. Despite being blinded in a shooting accident in 1858, he led a full ife as both an academic (his Manual of Political Economy was his best-known work), and a politician with an especial interest in Indian affairs. A common interest in India drew BJ and Fawcett together, and Fawcett and his wife seem to have been on very good terms with BJ, and often visited him at Balliol, but little evidence for this friendship survives in the Jowett Papers. His wife Millicent was a prominent advocate of women's rights.

ffolliott , John (1824-1894). Irish landowner, Sheriff of Sligo 1851 and of Leitrim 1882. ffolliott, like Robert Lowe (q.v.) is unusual among BJ's close male friends in having no Balliol links at all. An undergraduate at University College in the later 1840s, he was a friend of Robert Morier (q.v.), who introduced him to BJ. In the later 1840s and early 1850s, ffolliott was among BJ's closest friends, as the letters from BJ to him (now at Balliol) testify. In later years, although they saw less of each other, and fewer letters seem to have passed between them, their friendship remained strong, and ffolliott made a special effort to attend BJ's funeral.

Fletcher , Frank (1867-1956), Balliol 1886, secretary to BJ 1886-1893, later Professor of Classics at Exeter University 1909-33. Originally an assistant at Balliol Library when a boy, his talent drew him to BJ's attention, and he took him under his wing in a manner similar to Matthew Knight (q.v.), helping him in his education, not least in getting him an undergraduate place at Balliol. As Knight's tuberculosis grew worse, Fletcher began to help him as BJ's amanuensis, and finally replaced him. Several of BJ's letters and drafts are in his hand, and after BJ's death he wrote lists of contents for many of BJ's notebooks. There is no doubt that BJ's patronage of Fletcher helped him rise above his humble background.

Forbes , William Henry (1851-1914), Balliol 1869, Fellow of Balliol 1873-96, Lecturer 1893-1902. Classical scholar. Forbes was one of BJ's most devoted assistants in Balliol: he accompanied BJ on at least one reading party, and assisted BJ in his translation of Thucydides. Some items in the Jowett Papers are in his hand. However, because he spent so much time with BJ, as did, say, Evelyn Abbott or James Strachan-Davidson (qq.v.), the Jowett Papers have little evidence for their relationship too, which must be deduced from other sources.

Fremantle , Very Rev. and Hon. William Henry (1831-1916) Balliol 1849, Chaplain to A.C. Tait (q.v.), 1861-82, Canon of Canterbury 1882-95, Fellow and Chaplain of Balliol 1883-94, Dean of Ripon 1895-1915. Important figure on the liberal wing of Anglicanism. A pupil of BJ, who never ceased to admire him, although when he returned to Balliol, BJ and he did have occasional disputes about the running of the chapel. He edited a selection of BJ's sermons after his death.

Froude , James Anthony (1818-1894), Fellow of Exeter College 1842-9, Rector of St. Andrew's, 1869-71, Regius Professor of Modern History, Oxford 1892-4. Historian, best known for his History of England in the Sixteenth Century. Although his brother Richard Hurrell Froude was a leading Tractarian, Froude drew away from established religion and resigned his deaconship in 1849. It is not known when he and BJ met, but they seem to have known each other well, if not intimately.

Gell , Philip Lyttleton (1852-1926) Balliol 1872, Secretary to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press 1884-97, Director and President of British South Africa Company from 1899. Always a devoted follower of BJ from his undergraduate days, he and his wife Edith saw much of BJ in his last years. Gell was appointed one of BJ's literary executors along with Evelyn Abbott and Lewis Campbell, and seems to have helped them greatly in the preparation of the Life. He himself produced a collection of BJ's essays and sermons called Essays on Men and Manners and was a Trustee of the Jowett Memorial Fund. There is little doubt that Gell owed his promotion to the Clarendon Press to BJ's influence.  Unfortunately, Gell seemed unable to get on satisfactorily with the other Delegates and some of his authors (most notably James Murray [q.v.]), and eventually retired after a breakdown.

Gladstone , William Ewart (1809-1898) Prime Minister 1868-74, 1880-5, 1886 and 1892-4. BJ and Gladstone were never on friendly terms, but nonetheless met not infrequently. It was after one such meeting, in 1869, that Gladstone was moved to do something for BJ, which resulted in his promoting Robert Scott (q.v.) to the Deanery of Rochester, so that BJ could replace him as Master of Balliol.

Godley , John Arthur, 1st Baron Kilbracken (1847-1932), Balliol 1866, Assistant Private Secretary to Gladstone 1872-4, Principal Private Secretary to him 1880-2, Under-Secretary of State for India 1883-1909. Civil servant, who was crucial in the shaping of the organisation of the India Office. Although a pupil of BJ, they do not seem to have been on close terms: all extant links between them seem to date from after 1883, when BJ consulted him in a professional capacity over Indian matters.

Goschen , George Joachim, 1st Viscount Goschen (1831-1907), Vice-President of the Board of Trade 1865, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1866, President of the Poor Law Board 1868-71, First Lord of the Admiralty 1871-4, Chancellor of the Exchequer 1886-92, First Lord of the Admiralty 1895-1900, Chancellor of Oxford University 1903-1907. Leading statesman of the later 19th century, who left the Liberals for the Conservatives over Home Rule. Although not referred to in any of the biographies, Goschen does seem to have known BJ quite well, if one can judge from references to him in BJ's letters and commonplace books. It may be that Alfred Milner (q.v.) became Goschen's private secretary thanks to BJ's influence.

Grant , Sir Alexander of Dalvey, 10th Bt. (1826-1884), Balliol 1844, Vice-Chancellor of Bombay University 1863-8 and Principal of Edinburgh University 1868-84. Classical scholar and educationalist. In India, he was deeply involved in educational reforms, and he continued this work in Edinburgh. His major work of scholarship was an edition of Aristotle's Ethics. One of the first generation of BJ's pupils, he was among BJ's closest friends, and his admiration of BJ was lifelong. On Grant's return to Scotland in 1868, BJ used to visit him almost annually, and his friendship extended to Grant's wife Susan, and their children, and he took much interest in their welfare after Grant's death.

Grant Duff , Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone (1829-1906) Balliol 1847-50, Under-Secretary of State for India 1868-74 and for the Colonies 1880-1, and Governor of Madras 1881-6. Politician, who devoted his later years to literature. A pupil of BJ's who had a good opinion of Grant Duff, and always stayed on friendly terms with him. A common interest in India served to strengthen the links.

Green , Charlotte Byron (1842-1929), née Symonds, sister of John Addington Symonds and wife of Thomas Hill Green (qq.v.). After her marriage, Mrs. Green became an important figure in Balliol life, and a great benefactor to the college. BJ's closeness to Mrs. Green's brother, father and husband meant that they were always friends, but they did not become intimate until his very last years. At this stage, however, she became one of his closest friends: she did much to help in his illness of 1891, and was with him when he died. Furthermore she helped Frank Fletcher and Martha Knight (qq.v.) as an amanuensis for BJ: several letters and other notes of his from the 1890s are in her hand.

Green , Thomas Hill (1836-1882), Balliol 1855-9, Fellow of Balliol 1861-82 and Whyte's Professor of Moral Philosophy 1878-82 (one of the first lay fellows of an Oxford college). Important figure in the history of Victorian philosophy and a disciple of Kant and Hegel, he was also concerned in improving relations between Oxford university and town, and had a charismatic effect on his pupils analogous to that of the younger BJ. BJ taught Green and respected him, and they were usually on close terms, but BJ disapproved of some of Green's philosophy, and by the 1870s felt that his teaching tended to confuse rather than enlighten, and even in his funeral sermon made this ambivalence known. One might wonder how much this was due to genuine differences, and how much to a slight jealousy that Green now had the special relationship with undergraduates which BJ as Master could not have. Nonetheless, BJ left instructions to be buried close to him, which he was. His wife Charlotte is discussed under a separate entry.

Greenhill , Dr. William Alexander (1814-1894) Trinity College, Oxford, 1832-1837, Physician to the Radcliffe Infirmary 1839-51, after which he moved to Hastings, where he spent the rest of his life. Supporter of the Oxford Movement (see his entry in the DNB), who edited the works of Sir Thomas Browne in his spare time, Greenhill's medical work centred on his campaigns for improved sanitation, especially when he was in Hastings. Greenhill and BJ first met when Greenhill assisted BJ financially as an undergraduate, and a friendship grew up between them. BJ always kept in touch with Greenhill and his wife, frequently visiting them in Hastings. Greenhill helped BJ on certain medical and scientific points in his translation of Plato.

Grote , George (1794-1871), Leading Utilitarian, politician, educational reformer, and Classicist, whose History of Greece is now his greatest memorial. BJ respected Grote's work on Plato, even if he did disagree with some of his conclusions, and seems to have met him more than once. However, Grote's widow, Harriet (1792-1878), was probably closer to BJ, who visited her regularly on his journeys in Scotland in the 1870s, and had her to stay in turn at Balliol.

Haldane-Duncan , Robert Adam Philips, 3rd Earl Camperdown (1841-1918) Balliol 1859, Civil Lord of the Admiralty 1870-4. After an abortive political career, he led a retired life in Scotland. A pupil of BJ's, they remained good friends ever afterwards. It was as guests of Camperdown that Gladstone and BJ met in 1869, when Gladstone began the process of ensuring BJ's election as Master. His sister Julia Lady Abercromby (q.v.), was also a friend of BJ's.

Hall , William Henry Bullock (1837-1904), Balliol 1856. Barrister and travel writer. Originally his surname was Bullock, but he added the Hall in 1872. A pupil of BJ's, Hall became a lifelong friend of BJ's, who frequently stayed with him at his house at Six Mile Bottom near Newmarket.

Harrison , Edwin (1844-1899) Balliol 1867. Although a promising student, poor health prevented him from fulfilling his true potential. He nevertheless remained one of BJ's closest friends, and many of his remiscences are included in Abbott and Campbell.

Hatch , Edwin (1835-1889). Vice-Principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, 1867-85, Secretary of the Boards of Faculties and Studies at Oxford, 1884-9 and University Reader in Ecclesiastical History 1878-89. Important figure on the liberal wing of the Anglican church; his early death was a major blow to the cause. Little mention is made of Hatch in any of the biographies, but other evidence, not least in the Jowett papers, show that they were extremely good friends. BJ was godfather to Hatch's son Arthur (Balliol 1884).

Hely-Hutchinson , John Luke George, 5th Lord Donoughmore (1848-1900), Balliol 1866, Private Secretary to the Earl of Caenarvon 1876-8, and a major figure among the Freemasons. Pupil of BJ, who seems to have been a particularly unruly undergraduate. Many of BJ's letters from this time show his determination to do something with him. It is not yet clear to what extent they kept in touch when Donoughmore left Balliol.

Hobhouse , Arthur, 1st Baron of Hadspen (1819-1904), Balliol 1836, Charity Commissioner 1866-72, Law member of council of Governor-General of India 1872-7 and Member of Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, 1881-1901. Judge with an interest in liberal reforms, such as altering the laws on the property of married women. An undergraduate contemporary of BJ, who always stayed a good friend of his. He provided some lively reminiscences of BJ's youth (see I E20/2).

Hornby , Rev. James John (1826-1909), Balliol 1845, Fellow of Brasenose 1849-69, Head Master of Eton 1868-84, and Provost there 1884-1909. His reign at Eton is considered to have introduced important reforms there. Pupil of BJ, who, along with his successor at Eton, Edmond Warre (q.v.), was always on very good terms with BJ. He was one of the pall-bearers at BJ's funeral.

Howard , William George, 9th Earl of Carlisle (1845-1911) Amateur artist (he exhibited frequently in London in 1868-89), who dabbled in politics. He married the youngest daughter of Henrietta, Lady Stanley of Alderley (q.v.). A famous picture of Mazzini talking to BJ (reproduced in Faber and Abbott and Campbell) is his work. Although little evidence remains in the Jowett papers, BJ and Carlisle seem to have been on good terms: BJ preached a sermon at the marriage of his daughter Mary to the classicist Gilbert Murray (I E19/4 consists of copies of letters from BJ to her between 1888-91), and Carlisle's eldest son Charles, later the 10th Earl, went to Balliol in 1886. Furthermore, both men were party to discussions over what to do with A.C. Swinburne (q.v.).

Huxley , Prof. Thomas Henry (1825-1895). Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons, 1863-9, Fullerian Professor at the Royal Institute, 1863-7, Member of London School Board 1870-2, Rector of Aberdeen University 1872-5 and President of the Royal Society 1881-5. Biologist, who was one of the foremost early champions of evolutionary theory, and a leading campaigner against the 'fundamentalist' interpretation of the Bible. It is not clear how BJ and he met, but by the 1870s they had become good friends, in spite of many differences in their beliefs. Huxley and his wife Henrietta and BJ visited each other frequently, and Huxley's son Leonard was an undergraduate at Balliol in 1880-3. In his last years, BJ made a conscious effort to get to understand science better, and Huxley may have influenced him in this. BJ's letters to Huxley are preserved in the Huxley Papers at Imperial College, London.

Hyacinthe , Père, originally called Charles Loison (1827-1912), priest, excommunicated for not accepting Papal infallibility, and founder of a liberal Catholic sect. BJ and he seem to have met more than once, and BJ seems to have had a good opinion of him.

Ilbert , Sir Courtney Peregrine (1841-1924), Balliol 1860, Fellow, 1864-74, Counsel to Education Department 1879-82, law member of Executive Council of Governor General of India 1882-6, Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University 1885-6, Counsel to the Treasury 1889-1901 and Clerk to the House of Commons 1902-21. Politician, who became best known for his later work as a Parliamentary draughtsman. While at Balliol he became a supporter of BJ; his election to a Fellowship at last gave BJ a working majority at the College over Robert Scott (q.v.). When Ilbert left Balliol, he and BJ remained close friends until BJ's death. This friendship extended to Ilbert's wife Jessie (née Bradley) and daughters, and is visible in the many extant letters and copies of them which BJ wrote to all of them. He was one of BJ's executors.

Irwin , Guy (fl.1860-1893) Cousin of BJ on their mothers' side. Among the few relatives of BJ with whom he was in regular contact. He took a great interest in the education of Guy and his brother Sidney (q.v.), and was generous in his financial assistance towards them, such as when Guy went to India. Guy eventually went into business, and his later life is unknown.

Irwin , Sidney T. (d.1911), Assistant Master at Clifton College 1876-1911.  Cousin of BJ on their mothers' side. Like his brother Guy (q.v.), Sidney was one of the few relatives of BJ with whom he was in regular contact. BJ seems to have helped Sidney through Wellington, and wrote him some fascinating letters of advice (I F1/11-12). Sidney later became a master at Clifton College, and helped look after BJ's sister Emily (q.v.) in her last illness.

Irwin , Mrs. Elizabeth (fl. 1835-60) Cousin of BJ on his mother's side. Mother of Guy and Sidney (qq.v.), over whom BJ took such care.

Irwin , Colonel -- (died after 1859). Husband of Elizabeth Irwin, and father of Guy and Sidney (qq.v.). His early death put the burden of looking after his family very much on BJ's shoulders. Little else is known of him, not even his first name.

Jebb , Sir Richard Claverhouse (1841-1905) Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1863-75, Professor of Greek at Glasgow University, 1875-89, Regius Professor of Greek at Cambridge, 1889-1905, and MP for Cambridge 1892-1905. Classical scholar, whose commentaries on Sophocles and Bacchylides are still highly regarded. BJ and he certainly knew each other by 1873 (see III C44), but it is not clear how they first came to meet. Although not close friends (BJ may have been biassed by his close friendship with Lewis Campbell (q.v.), who also edited Sophocles), they were always on good terms, and when in Cambridge BJ seems to have made a point of visiting him.

Jenkyns , Richard (1782-1854) Balliol 1800-4, Fellow 1803-19, Master of Balliol 1819-1854 and Dean of Wells 1845-54. The 'Little Master', who did so much to raise the standards of Balliol well beyond other Oxford colleges in the early 19th century. The creation of open scholarships, and the fight against closed awards owed much to him. An Oxford 'character', he was the subject of almost as many anecdotes as BJ was to be later. In later years BJ himself regarded him with respect, albeit a somewhat amused one, but there is next to no evidence to show the relations between them in Jenkyns' lifetime when BJ was a young Fellow.

Jeune , Sir Francis Henry, Baron St. Helier (1843-1905), Balliol 1861-5, Fellow of Hertford College, 1874, Judge 1891, President of the Probate Division 1892-1905, and Judge-advocate-general 1894-1904. Pupil of BJ, who always stayed on good terms with him.

Jowett , Alfred (1821-1858), BJ's younger brother. Alfred went to India (like William Hudson Jowett [q.v.]) to work as a doctor, and died out there. BJ seems to have been fond of his brother, and was clearly upset at his death (see III S90). Letters which Alfred received from his mother and sister, and other documents connected with Alfred's time in India were sent back to England to the Jowett family, and eventually came to BJ, who chose to preserve them (now to be found at I G15/16 and II A14), thus providing an interesting picture of life in India in the 1850s.

Jowett , Benjamin Sr (1788-1859), BJ's father. Not unlike Dickens, BJ was the son of a father who was something of a failure at everything he tried, be it the fur trade or printing. Eventually he became obsessed with a metrical translation of the psalms which occupied the last few years of his life. BJ seems to have had a difficult relationship with his father, perhaps exacerbated by the fact that for many years BJ was his parents' sole source of support. After Benjamin Senior's death, BJ continued to support his mother Isabella (née Langhorne [1790-1869]) until her death. It seems that BJ was closer to his mother than his father: he often liked to send her letters written to him from eminent people (which has ensured their survival), such as one from Crown Princess Victoria of Prussia (q.v.).

Jowett , Ellen (1823-1839), BJ's younger sister. A poignant account of her death is given in a letter to W.A. Greenhill (q.v.)

Jowett , Emily (1815-1882), BJ's elder sister. Emily was the longest-lived of BJ's siblings, and died a spinster. She spent many years looking after their parents, either in West England or France, and after their mother's death she continued to live in the Torquay. For all that she became BJ's last surviving sibling, they were never very close: BJ was always punctilious in supporting her financially, and occasionally visited her, or invited her to Balliol after 1870, but one feels that this was done more from duty than affection.

Jowett , William Hudson (1825-1850) BJ's youngest brother, who, like Alfred Jowett (q.v.), went to India, in his case as a cadet. He also died out there. BJ clearly was fond of William, as testified by some of his comments in letters to friends after his death.

Kay-Shuttleworth , Sir James Philip (1804-1877), Educational reformer, with especial concern for popular education. Kay-Shuttleworth was much involved in the movements to reform Oxford and the Civil Service, and came into contact several times with BJ on these occasions, although they never seem to have become any more than colleagues.

Keene , Charles Ruck (d.1886), Balliol 1843. Landowner. BJ spent much of the summers of 1846 and 1847 tutoring Keene at Beaumaris, but seems not to have kept in touch afterwards.

Knight , Martha Jane (1847-1930) The daughter of BJ's butler, and sister of Matthew (q.v.), she became BJ's housekeeper in 1873. There is no doubt that she was an important figure in BJ's household, and anecdotes from Balliol undergraduates testify to a formidable reputation. Although not entrusted with academic work like her brother and Frank Fletcher (q.v.), she nonetheless worked as an amanuensis for BJ on many occasions: several of his later letters, especially those written at the time of his illness in 1891, are in her hand.

Knight , Matthew (1852/3-1895). The son of BJ's butler and brother of Martha (q.v.), his intellect attracted BJ's notice in the later 1860s, and he became BJ's secretary. As he grew older, he began to help BJ in his scholarly work, and made important contributions, gratefully acknowledged by BJ, to his translations of Plato and Aristotle. The MSS of the drafts for the essays on Aristotle's Politics, which have many corrections and additions in his hand, show how large his role was in this. Unfortunately, in the later 1870s he began to suffer from tuberculosis, and gradually was able to do less for BJ, as his health grew worse, and he had to make several visits to Davos. It may be that his illness was a contributory factor in BJ's decision to abandon work on the essays on Aristotle.

Lake , Very Rev. William Charles (1817-1897) Balliol 1834, Fellow of Balliol 1838-59, Rector of Huntspill, Somerset 1858-69, Prebendary of Wells 1860-9 and Dean of Durham 1869-94. Contemporary of BJ's, but never, it seems, very close to him. It is generally thought that he voted against him in the 1854 election for the Mastership.

Lancaster , Henry Hill (1829-1875) Balliol 1849. Advocate and essayist, who contributed to the North British Review on literature, politics and history. One of BJ's favourite pupils, who was one of the friends BJ used to make a point of visiting on his trips to Scotland. BJ frequently expressed his sorrow at Lancaster's premature death, and contributed a preface to the collected edition of his writings.

Langhorne , Elizabeth (1828-after 1895) Cousin of BJ (daughter of his mother's brother), whose recollections of him provide an interesting view of him from someone with little or no interest in his educational work, but much concerned over his theological eccentricities.

Langhorne , Rev. William Henry (1826-1916). Rector of Over Worton and Vicar of Nether Worton, Oxon 1883-1909. Very distant cousin of BJ (their last common ancester seems to have been a fourth-great-grandfather). Langhorne and BJ only knew each other slightly, but nonetheless Langhorne gave Abbott and Campbell much help with BJ's family background during the preparation of the Life, and even helped collect information from elsewhere: some of the reminiscences of BJ are addressed to him instead of Abbott or Campbell.

La Touche , Rev. James D. (fl. 1873-1897). Liberal clergyman, apparently connected with Trinity College, Dublin, who was a passionate supporter of Bishop Colenso (q.v.). As a result, he came into contact with BJ. Several letters survive between them which show that they were on friendly terms, and that BJ listened to La Touche with sympathy. The spelling of La Touche's surname causes confusion; the way in which he himself spelt it is adopted throughout. Furthermore, although A & C call him 'John', in I G16/2/33 La Touche says his first name was James.

Leveson-Gower , Granville George, 2nd Earl Granville (1815-1891), Foreign Secretary 1851-2, Secretary of State for the Colonies 1868-70, Foreign Secretary 1870-4 and 1880-5, and Secretary of State for the Colonies 1886. Statesman, who was among those blamed for the failure of the relief of General Gordon at Khartoum. Although they knew each other only slightly, BJ took the trouble to record their conversations when they did meet.

Liddell , Very Rev. Henry George, (1811-1898) Tutor of Christ Church 1836-45, Censor of Christ Church 1845-6, Headmaster of Westminster School 1846-55 and Dean of Christ Church 1855-1891. Scholar best known now for collaborating with Robert Scott (q.v.) on Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon and for being the father of Alice Liddell, the inspiration for Lewis Carroll's Alice books. Despite the ten-year battle between BJ and Christ Church concerning BJ's professorial salary, Liddell and BJ always remained on good, if not close terms (it seems, too, that Liddell supported BJ's side), as shown by some of the letters Liddell wrote to BJ at the end of his life, which are preserved in Balliol.

Lingen , Ralph Robert Wheeler, Baron Lingen (1819-1905), Fellow of Balliol 1841, Secretary to the Education Office 1849-69, and Permanent Secretary to the Treasury 1869-85. One of the most distinguished civil servants of the 19th century, who did much with Robert Lowe (q.v.) to improve educational standards in the 1860s. Lingen's and BJ's similar political views brought them together when Lingen became a Fellow of Balliol, and Lingen stayed one of BJ's very closest friends until BJ's death. It was Lingen who took a leading role in collecting subscriptions to augment BJ's professorial salary in 1862 (see I E7/1 and II A8/1-2), an offer which BJ felt unable to accept. His wife, Emma (née Hutton), was also a good friend of BJ's.

Lonsdale , Rev. Prof. James Gylby (1816-1892) Balliol 1833, Fellow 1838-64, Professor of Classical Literature, King's College London 1865-70. Classical scholar, who translated Virgil and Horace. Although Lonsdale was more conservative than BJ, and probably voted for Robert Scott (q.v.) in the 1854 Mastership elections, BJ and he seem to have been on friendly terms, as shown by the sermon he preached at Balliol after Lonsdale's death.

Lowe , Robert, Lord Sherbrooke (1811-1892), Vice-President of the Board of Trade and Paymaster-General 1855-8, Vice-President of Committee of Council on Education 1859-64, Chancellor of the Exchequer 1868-73 and Home Secretary 1873-4. Statesman famous for his sarcastic wit, whose best work was done in the fields of education and finance. BJ claims that he and Lowe first met in 1835, but it was not until Lowe became involved with education in the mid 1860s that a warm friendship began, which lasted until Lowe's death (possibly Ralph Lingen (q.v.) brought them together). The most important result of this friendship was the major role Lowe played in ensuring that BJ became Master in 1870. BJ dedicated his translation of Thucydides to Lowe.

Luke , George Rankine (1836-1862) Balliol 1855, Student of Christ Church, 1861-2. A talented pupil of BJ, who died young in a boating accident. BJ, who was greatly saddened by his death, wrote his epitaph, which is in Christ Church Cathedral, and an obituary notice for the Times (in Abbott and Campbell Vol. I pp.331-2).

Lushington , Sir Godfrey (1832-1907), Balliol 1850, Permanent Under-Secretary at the Home Office 1885-95. Son of Stephen Lushington (q.v.), and pupil of BJ. Like his father, Lushington was on good terms with BJ, and these feelings were warmly reciprocated.

Lushington , Dr. Stephen (1782-1873), Judge of the High Court of Admiralty 1838-67 and Dean of Arches 1858-67. He had to judge the Essays and Reviews cases. Although BJ and Lushington ended up on oppposing sides over Essays and Reviews, nevertheless BJ visited his house frequently both before and after the trial. Lushington supported BJ's claim for an increase in his professorial salary in 1864, and BJ more than once speaks warmly of Lushington in his letters.

Lyall , Sir Alfred Comyn (1835-1911), Author, and Civil Servant in the Indian service, who rose to great prominence in the India government in the 1870s and 1880s. On returning to England in 1887, he became a member of the India Council until 1902. It is not clear how he and BJ met (although their common interest in India provides a likely explanation), but the several references to him in the Jowett Papers show that they knew each other reasonably well.

Macaulay , Thomas Babington, 1st Baron Macaulay (1800-1859), politician and historian, most famous for his History of Britain. He and BJ came into contact over the Civil Service reforms of the 1850s.

Mackail , Prof. John William (1859-1945), Balliol 1878, Fellow of Balliol 1882-91, Member of the Education Department of the Privy Council 1884-1903, Assistant Secretary of the Privy Council 1903-19, and Professor of Poetry, Oxford 1906-11. Classical scholar, best known for his work on Virgil. While at Oxford, Mackail seems to have helped BJ in his work on Plato and Aristotle, taking on a role similar to W.H. Forbes' (q.v.).

Mallet , Sir Louis (1823-1890), Permanent Under-Secretary of State for India 1874-83. Civil servant and economist. One assumes that BJ and Mallet were brought together by their common interest in India. They grew to be on good terms, and Mallet was among BJ's frequent visitors to Balliol. His son Bernard was at Balliol in 1878-81.

Mallock , William Hurrell (1849-1923) Balliol 1869, Man of letters perhaps now best known for his satirical novel The New Republic, in which he caricatures several eminent Victorian intellectuals, including BJ. BJ and Mallock thought little of each other, and the unflattering portrait of BJ as 'Dr. Jenkinson' in The New Republic supports this. A.C. Benson heard it rumoured that Mallock had shown BJ incriminating information about Walter Pater (q.v.).

Manning , Henry, (1808-1892) Balliol 1827, Archdeacon of Chichester 1840-50, Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster 1865-1892. Along with Cardinal Newman, one of the leading converts in English Roman Catholicism. Although BJ and Manning were never well acquainted, nonetheless when Master BJ was always respectful to Manning as an eminent old member: more than once he invited Manning to College events, and several of his speeches on such occasions make graceful compliments to him. At least once he arranged a meeting between Manning and Archbishop Tait (q.v.).

Markby , Dr. (later Sir) William (1829-1914) Recorder of Birmingham 1856-6, Puisne Judge of High Court of Calcutta 1866-78, Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University 1877-78, Reader in Indian Law, Oxford, 1878-1900, Fellow of Balliol 1883-1914. Eminent lawyer and specialist in Indian matters, who was in charge of students for the Indian Civil Service at Balliol. BJ brought him into Balliol, and Markby became an important figure in college life. Markby was a close friend in BJ's last years, and was appointed one of his executors. His wife Lucy drew the pictures of the Old and the New Halls reproduced in A & C (see I G16/2/39).

Marshall , Professor Alfred (1842-1924) Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1865-77 and 1885-1908, Principal of University College, Bristol 1877-82, Fellow of Balliol 1883-4, Professor of Political Economy, Cambridge 1885-1908. Economist, who occupies a major position in the history of the discipline for his work on economic theory. BJ and Marshall first became acquainted when Marshall was elected the first Principal of Bristol University, and almost at once BJ was on excellent terms with Marshall and his wife Mary. When the Marshalls moved back to Cambridge, BJ and they often visited each other.

Martineau , Dr. James (1805-1900), Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Political Economy at Manchester New College 1840-57 and Principal 1869-85. Eminent unitarian divine. It is not clear when BJ and Martineau first met, and little direct evidence exists of their relationship, but there is no doubt that BJ thought highly enough of Martineau to visit him regularly during his trips to Scotland, where Martineau had a summer residence at Aviemore.

Max Müller , Friedrich (1823-1900), Taylorian Professor 1854-68, Curator of the Bodleian Library, 1856-63 and 1881-94, Fellow of All Souls, 1858-1900 and Professor of Comparative Philosophy at Oxford, 1868-1900. An important figure in the history of comparative philology, especially in the study of Indian languages, in which field he edited many important Sanskrit texts. Given BJ's interests in India, it is not surprising that BJ and Max Müller came into contact with each other, and although they were not close friends, they were certainly well acquainted.

Milner , Alfred, 1st Viscount Milner (1854-1925) Balliol 1873, Private Secretary to G.J. Goschen (q.v.) 1884-5 and 1886-90, Worked in Egypt 1890-2, Chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue 1892-5, High Commissioner for South Africe 1897-1905, Member of the War Cabinet 1916-18, Secretary of State for War 1918 and Colonial Secretary 1918-21. The epitome of the Victorian Imperialist, Milner took on crucial roles in the Boer War and the First World War. One of the early generation of undergraduates to come up after BJ became Master, Milner often looked to BJ for support and advice (as seen in his letter I E5/11), which was always forthcoming.

Monier-Williams , Prof. Sir Monier (1819-1899), Balliol 1838, Boden Professor of Sanskrit 1860-99, Fellow of Balliol 1882-8. Originally called Monier Williams, he changed his name after his knighthood in 1887. Sanskrit Scholar, who campaigned successfully for an Indian Institute in Oxford. Monier-Williams is another example of BJ's interest in India. BJ gave him much support in the creation of the Institute, and invited him to become a Fellow of Balliol.

Morgan , Sir George Osborne, 1st Bt. (1826-1897), Balliol 1843, Under-secretary of State for Colonies 1886. Lawyer and politician, and author of several legal textbooks, who also published a translation of Virgil's Eclogues. A pupil of BJ, Morgan freely acknowledged his debt to him, and they seem to have been on friendly terms.

Morier , Sir Robert Burnet David (1826-1893) Balliol 1845. Diplomat, who after several years in Germany became Minister at Lisbon in 1876-81, at Madrid in 1881-4 and Ambassador at St. Petersburg in 1885-93. An opponent of Bismarck. A pupil of BJ while at Balliol, Morier became one of BJ's very closest friends. Although Morier was frequently abroad, they always kept in close contact, staying on the best of terms until their deaths within a few weeks of each other. BJ seems to have agreed to keep Morier's letters, so that, exceptionally, a significant number of Morier's letters to BJ are preserved in the Morier Papers in Balliol (BJ's letters to Morier are mostly in the Jowett Papers [III M], but about 40 are in the Morier Papers too). Morier's son Victor was sent to Balliol in 1886, but failed to pass his exams and had to leave. During Victor's short and somewhat feckless life, BJ did much to try and help Morier sort his life out.

Murray , Sir James Augustus Henry (1837-1915) Hon. Fellow of Balliol 1885. The first editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, and one of the most important of all British lexicographers. The first contacts between BJ and Murray were unfortunate: BJ offended Murray deeply by offering an ill-timed, if well-intentioned, list of suggestions for the dictionary, and only the efforts of friends to mediate prevented Murray from resigning in anger. After this, relations between the men became much warmer, as testified by Murray's Honorary Fellowship at Balliol, and his decision to name one of his sons Arthur Hugh Jowett Murray (BJ suggested 'Arthur' in memory of Clough and Stanley [qq.v.]), and make BJ his godfather.

Napoleon III (1805-1873), President of France 1848-53, and then Emperor 1853-70. BJ never met Napoleon III, but several letters (especially those to Morier and Florence Nightingale) reveal a surprising admiration which he bore for him.

Nettleship , Richard Lewis (1846-92) Balliol 1865, Fellow of Balliol 1869-92. Classical Scholar, whose early death (in a mountaineering accident) prevented him from fulfilling his potential. Little evidence remains of his relations with BJ, but some of BJ's speeches and sermons of 1892/3 bear witness to his sorrow at his death.

Newman , Professor Francis William (1805-1897) Fellow of Balliol 1826-1830, Professor of Classical Literature at Manchester New College 1840-6, Professor of University College, London 1846-69. Classical scholar and non-conformist theologian. Brother of Cardinal Newman. It seems that BJ and he only knew each other slightly.

Newman , Cardinal John Henry (1801-1890). Theologian; in his youth a leader of the Oxford Movement, then one of the most important converts to Catholicism, after which he became one of its most important British members. BJ and Newman seem not to have known each other, and BJ seems not to have had much time for him.

Newman , William Lambert (1834-1923) Balliol 1851-5, Fellow 1854-1923 (although non-resident after 1871 because of ill-health). Classical scholar, best known for his edition of Aristotle's Politics. Even in retirement, Newman remained a good friend of BJ.

Nichol , Professor John (1833-1894), Balliol 1855-9, Professor of English Literature, Glasgow University 1862-89. Scholar in English literature, distinguished for his teaching and lecturing, and his interest in educational reform. Pupil of BJ, who became a long-standing friend (cf. the copies of letters from BJ to him at I F13/19-34), and one of the many Scots whom BJ liked to visit during his journeys there. Nichol was also an undergraduate friend of A.C. Swinburne (q.v.), and some of Swinburne's biographers accuse Nichol of having introduced him to heavy drinking.

Nicholl , Prof. George Frederick (1832-1913), Lord Almoner's Professor and Reader in Arabic, Oxford 1878-1909, Honorary Fellow of Balliol, 1878-1909 and Professor of Sanskrit and Persian, King's College, London 1879. Orientalist. Nicholl was one of BJ's several friends connected with India. When Nicholl moved to Oxford, BJ at once offered him a place at Balliol, which was accepted, and they seem to have remained on good terms.

Nightingale , Florence (1820-1910), reformer of hospital nursing. In 1860 A.H. Clough sent BJ an MS of Florence Nightingale's, as a consequence of which they began an epistolary friendship, until in 1862 BJ first met her. A deep friendship grew, and he regularly visited her until his death. There is no doubt that Florence Nightingale occupies a special position among BJ's friends: he wrote her a great number of letters (preserved at III N; a selection has now been edited by E.V. Quinn and John Prest as Dear Miss Nightingale), and more notes are made of conversations with her than with anyone else in the commonplace books. Rumours have often circulated about the nature of BJ's feelings towards her, including stories of a proposal of marriage, but they remain unsubstantiated.

Northcote , Stafford Henry, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh (1818-1887), Balliol 1836-42, President of the Board of Trade 1866, Secretary for India 1867-8, Chancellor of the Exchequer 1874-80. Statesman, admired for his high-mindedness. BJ and Northcote were contemporaries at Balliol together, and seem always to have kept in close contact throughout their lives.

Oakeley , Rev. Frederick (1802-1880) Fellow of Balliol 1827-43, Canon of Westminster Cathedral 1852-80. One of the leading Tutors at Balliol in the 1830s, and an important figure in the Tractarian movement, he eventually became a Catholic. Although he and BJ presumably knew each other, there is no trace of this in the Jowett papers.

Palgrave , Francis Turner (1824-1897) Balliol 1843, Assistant Secretary of Education Department 1855-84, Professor of Poetry at Oxford 1885-95. Poet and man of letters, best known today for his poetry anthology The Golden Treasury. Another of the early generation of BJ's pupils who became a lifelong friend. His reminiscences of BJ are especially interesting, especially for providing a rare account of BJ's parents (II A21/104). It was he who introduced BJ to Tennyson (q.v.).

Palmer , Ven. Edwin (1824-1895) Balliol 1841, Fellow of Balliol 1845-67, Professor of Latin at Oxford 1870-8, Archdeacon of Oxford 1878-95. Classical scholar and divine. Brother of Roundell Palmer (q.v.). Fellow of Balliol at the time of the 1854 election, it seems that his decision to support Robert Scott (q.v.) was crucial. However, he had been one of BJ's pupils and in spite of the 1854 election there is no doubt that BJ and Palmer were always on good terms, and Abbott claims that he was the first person to greet BJ by his new title after the Mastership election of 1870 (A & C Vol. II p.3).

Palmer , Roundell, 1st Earl of Selbourne (1812-1895) Attorney General 1863-6 and Lord Chancellor 1872-4 and 1880-5. Brother of Edwin Palmer (q.v.). Lawyer and politician, who was also one of the most prominent lay supporters of the Tractarians. BJ seems to have had mixed feelings about Palmer, because of his Tractarian sympathies: although they saw each other not infrequently, they seem not to have been close friends. Nonetheless, BJ did write to Palmer in the 1850s canvassing his support for University reform, and Palmer was admitted to BJ's deathbed to make an affectionate farewell.

Paravicini , Baron Francis de (1843-1920), Balliol 1862, Senior Student of Christ Church 1866-71, Tutor of Balliol 1872-1908, Fellow 1878-1908. Classical Scholar. A pupil of BJ's, the details of de Paravicini's relations with BJ remain unclear.

Parker , Albert Edmund, Viscount Boringdon (until 1864), 3rd Earl of Morley (1843-1905), Balliol 1861, Under-Secretary of State for War 1880-5, Chairman of Committees and Deputy Speaker, House of Lords 1889-1904. Politician. A pupil of BJ, of whom BJ thought highly.

Pater , Walter (1839-1894), Fellow of Brasenose 1865-94. Writer, who was a central figure in the Aesthetic movement of the later 19th century. Briefly a pupil of BJ, they seem never to have been on the best of terms; it seems that an incriminating letter from Pater to one of his pupils was shown to BJ apparently through W.H. Mallock (q.v.). BJ informed Pater that he would make it public if Pater applied for promotion, and Pater never called BJ's bluff (this is the account given in the diaries of A.C. Benson). In the light of this, it is surprising that Lewis Campbell elicited from Pater some (favourable) reminiscences of BJ (A & C Vol. I pp.329-30).

Pattison , Mark (1813-1884). Rector of Lincoln 1861-1884. One of the other most important figures of Victorian Oxford alongside BJ, Pattison's career was strikingly similar to BJ's: both were fine scholars with a gift for teaching and a great interest in university reform (although Pattison wanted the University to place a far higher emphasis on research than BJ did), both contributed to Essays and Reviews and both were foiled in their first attempts at the headships of their colleges by conservative opponents. However, it seems that they were never on close terms.

Pearson , Rev. Hugh (1817-1882) Balliol 1835, Vicar of Sonning 1841, Canon of Windsor 1876, and Deputy Clerk of the Closet to the Queen, 1881. Although he never achieved the highest office in the church (indeed, he seems to have consciously avoided it, as he declined the Deanery of Westminster), Pearson had a considerable reputation for his integrity. Contemporary of BJ at Balliol, and a lifelong friend. BJ preached his funeral sermon.

Peel , Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1st Viscount Peel (1829-1912) Balliol 1848, Speaker of the House of Commons 1884-95, Visitor of Balliol 1894-1912. Peel became Speaker at a difficult time, and proved very successful in his post. He was a son of Sir Robert Peel. A pupil of BJ, for whom BJ always had the highest regard. On Peel's election as Speaker, BJ organised a banquet at Balliol in his honour.

Percival , John (1834-1918), Headmaster of Clifton College 1862-79, President of Trinity College, Oxford 1879-87, Headmaster of Rugby 1887-95 and Bishop of Hereford 1895-1917. For all the eminence of his later career, perhaps Percival's greatest achievement was that as the  first headmaster of Clifton College he turned it into an extremely successful school. It is not known how he met BJ, but they knew each other quite well.

Perroud , J.M. (fl. 1893). BJ's butler. Very little is known about Perroud, certainly compared with Martha and Matthew Knight (qq.v.), but he worked for BJ for most of his life.

Petty-Fitzmaurice , Henry Charles Keith, Earl of Kerry (to 1866), 5th Marquess of Lansdowne (1845-1927) Balliol 1863, Under-Secretary of State for War 1872-4, Under-Secretary of State for India 1880, Governor-General of Canada 1883-8, Viceroy of India 1888-94, Secretary of State for War 1895-1900, Foreign Secretary 1900-5, Member of the War Cabinet 1915-16. Statesman, who led the Conservative opposition in the House of Lords during the constitutional crisis of 1910/11. Lansdowne, a pupil of BJ's, was almost the paragon of his ideal aristocrat devoting himself to a life of public service. BJ and Lansdowne were always on excellent terms: BJ thought very highly of him and Lansdowne freely acknowledged his debt to BJ. When Lansdowne became Viceroy of India, BJ organised a banquet in his honour, and sent many letters of advice to him in India. His son Henry William Edmund, later the 6th Marquess, came up to Balliol in 1890.

Powell , Prof. Baden (1796-1860), Savilian Professor of Geometry 1827-60. Philospher and Scientist. One of the contributors to Essays and Reviews. It is unclear exactly how well acquainted he and BJ were, but they must have been close enough for BJ to be the godfather of Powell's son Baden Baden-Powell (q.v.).

Price , Bartholomew (1818-1898), Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy 1853-98, Secretary to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press 1868-1884 and Master of Pembroke College, Oxford 1893-8. Mathematician, who was also an important figure in the Press's history, who did much to lay the foundations for its modern state. BJ and he do not seem to have got on well, as shown by BJ's decision to replace him on his retirement with the professional publisher Philip Lyttleton Gell (q.v.).

Primrose , Archibald Philip, 5th Marquis of Rosebery (1847-1929), Prime Minister 1894-5. It is unknown how BJ and Rosebery became acquainted. However, a friendship grew between them in BJ's later years, and he visited Rosebery more than once. BJ's letters to Rosebery (now preserved in the National Library of Scotland) show that they were on excellent terms.

Pusey , Prof. Rev. Edward Bouverie (1800-1882), Regius Professor of Hebrew 1828-82. Theologian, who became a central figure in the Oxford Movement. Pusey and BJ were never on good terms, because of their utterly divergent beliefs, and Pusey was instrumental in trying to prosecute BJ for his contribution to Essays and Reviews. On the other hand, Pusey did appreciate the injustice of BJ's low professorial stipend, and, being magnanimous enough to separate the two issues, tried, unsuccessfully, to get the stipend increased.

Ramsay , John William, Lord Ramsay (in 1874-1880) 13th Earl of Dalhousie (1847-1887) Balliol 1875, Commander of the Britannia training ship for naval cadets and Secretary of State for Scotland 1886. Sailor and politician. Coming up to Balliol later then was usual to improve his education which he felt to be deficient, Dalhousie was only there for a year, but nonetheless he and BJ became good friends, touring Switzerland together in 1876. After the sudden death of both Dalhousie and his wife, BJ took great interest in the future of their children.

Raper , Robert William (1842-1915), Balliol 1861, Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford 1865-71, Dean of Trinity College, Oxford, 1875, Curator of the University Parks, 1885. Academic, with an interest in conservation (he was an early member of the National Trust). Although only briefly at Balliol (he became a scholar at Trinity College soon after matriculation), he remained on friendly terms with BJ. He gave Balliol its portrait of A.C. Swinburne.

Riddell , Rev. James (1823-1866) Balliol 1840, Fellow of Balliol 1845-66. Classical scholar, best known for his unfinished commentary on the Odyssey. One of BJ's early pupils, they seem to have remained on good terms, even though Riddell's decision to vote for Robert Scott (q.v.) in the 1854 election was crucial.

Ritchie , Prof. David George (1853-1903), Balliol 1874-8, Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford 1878-94, Tutor at Balliol 1882-6, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, St. Andrews University 1894-1903. Philosopher, much influenced by Arnold Toynbee and T.H. Green (qq.v.). BJ and he always kept in touch after Ritchie left Oxford, and it seems that Ritchie tried, unsuccessfully, to complete BJ's essays on Aristotle's Politics.

Robinson , George Frederick Samuel, 2nd Earl de Grey and Ripon and 1st Marquis of Ripon (1827-1909), Secretary for War 1863-6, Secretary for India 1866, Governor-General of India 1880-4, First Lord of the Admiralty 1886, Secretary for the Colonies 1892-5 and Lord Privy Seal 1905-8. Statesman, who converted to Catholicism in 1874, and then became one of the first Catholics to attain high office in Britain. Although never a close friend of BJ's, their common interest in India, as well as Ripon's acquaintance with Florence Nightingale, drew BJ and Ripon together, and they met and corresponded not infrequently.

Rogers , Rev. William (1819-1896) Balliol 1837-42, Perpetual Curate of St. Thomas', Charterhouse, 1845-63, and rector of St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate 1863-96. Educational reformer. A contemporary of BJ's, they lost touch for a few years, until they met on an education commission of enquiry in 1861. From then on, Rogers and BJ remained close friends. At a time when BJ was being most severely persecuted for his beliefs, Rogers often invited him to preach at his church, and was greatly helped by him in the preparation of a Children's Bible, published in 1873. BJ dedicated his translation of Aristotle's Politics to him.

Round , James Thomas (1798-1860) Balliol, 1816-20 and Fellow of Balliol 1820-35. Cleric. Round left Oxford before BJ came up, but one of the few long surviving letters addressed to BJ is one written by him in the late 1850s in protest at BJ's edition of St. Paul's Epistles.

Roundell , Charles Savile (1827-1906), Balliol 1845, Fellow of Merton 1851-74, Secretary to the Jamaica Commission 1865 and to the Commission of Inquiry into Oxford and Cambridge Universities 1872, MP 1880-5 (originally his surname was Currer, which he changed to Roundell). A pupil of BJ, who inherited to the full BJ's reforming zeal. They always stayed on excellent terms.

Ruskin , John (1819-1900), distinguished art critic and historian. BJ and he seem to have met several times, and usually to have been on good terms, but BJ did not agree with all his theories, and they were never close friends.

Russell , Adeline Marie, Marchioness of Tavistock (to 1891), 10th Duchess of Bedford (d.1920), wife of George William Francis Sackville, the 10th Duke of Bedford (1852-1893; Balliol 1870). BJ taught the 10th Duke at Balliol, but it was the Duchess who became one of BJ's closest women friends. References in some his letters to Florence Nightingale suggest that the Duchess had a difficult relationship with her in-laws, and BJ seems to have been her confidante over this. BJ visited the couple frequently, and was deeply upset at the 10th Duke's premature death.

Russell , Francis Charles Hastings, 9th Duke of Bedford (1819-1891). It seems that BJ and the 9th Duke met through the Duke relative, Lord John Russell (q.v.), and before long they had become close friends. BJ visited him at Woburn annually for many years. He seems to have suffered from depression, and in 1891, he shot himself. His suicide upset BJ greatly, and he wrote an obituary of him in the Spectator.

Russell , Herbrand Arthur, Lord Russell (to 1893), 11th Duke of Bedford (1858-1940) Balliol 1877. Although his father and brother were both very close friends of BJ, there is next to no trace of the 11th Duke in the Jowett papers, although one assumes that the goodwill felt by BJ towards the rest of the family extended towards him too.

Russell , Lord John, 1st Earl Russell (1792-1878), Prime Minister 1846-52 and 1865-6. BJ met Russell in the late 1850s through the wife of Dr. Cradock, Principal of Brasenose (Russell's sister-in-law), and they grew to be on good terms: there are several allusions in BJ's letters to his visiting Russell. It was almost certainly through him that BJ was introduced to Russell's relative the 9th Duke of Bedford (q.v.)

Russell , John Francis Stanley, 2nd Earl Russell (1865-1931) Balliol 1883. Lord Russell was a turbulent student, who gave BJ much trouble. Despite his close links to the rest of the family, therefore, BJ had little time for him.

Russell , Lady Laura (d.1910), wife of Lord Arthur Russell (1825-1892), younger brother of the 9th Duke of Bedford (q.v.). Another member of the Russell family with whom BJ was well acquainted, if one may judge from the extant letters from her to him.

Russell , Lord Odo William Leopold (1829-1884), 1st Lord Ampthill, nephew of the 9th Duke of Bedford (q.v.). Distinguished diplomat, in particular Ambassador at Rome 1858-70 and at Berlin 1871-84. BJ and he seem to have met occasionally when guests at the same house parties.

Scott , Robert (1811-1887), Fellow of Balliol 1835-1840, Master of Balliol 1854-70 and Dean of Rochester 1870-1887. He combined with Henry Liddell (q.v.) on Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon, which in its revised editions has remained the most important Greek-English dictionary ever produced. Scott taught BJ and they were originally on good terms: when his first wife died in 1845, BJ paid him several long visits in his Cornwall parish to help him in his duties. However, after Scott was elected as Master of Balliol, as the conservative alternative to BJ, relations between the two men soured (although it is to Scott's credit that he never tried to drive BJ out of Balliol even during the Essays and Reviews debate). After Scott was promoted to a deanery by Gladstone (q.v.), it seems that he never returned to Balliol. Furthermore, at all the major occasions of BJ's Mastership, such as the opening of the Hall, or the many celebratory banquets there, Scott was never invited, or, apparently, referred to. However, on Scott's death, BJ was able to take a kinder view of him (see III N607).

Sellar , Prof William Young (1825-1890), Balliol 1842, Professor of Greek at St. Andrew's University 1853-9, Professor of Humanity, Edinburgh University 1863-1890. Classical Scholar, best known fort his work on Virgil and Horace. Elder brother of A. Craig Sellar (q.v.). One of the first generation of BJ's pupils, who remained a close friend of BJ's, although Sellar's somewhat difficult temperament seems to have caused occasional upsets in the relationship. BJ was also on very good terms with Sellar's wife Eleanor, and his son Frank, and the Sellars were always among the Scottish friends whom BJ used to visit.

Shairp , Prof. John Campbell (1819-1885) Balliol 1840, Professor of Latin at St. Andrew's University 1861-72, Principal of United College, St. Andrews 1868-85, and Professor of Poetry at Oxford 1877-85. Scholar, who specialised in British Romantic poetry. BJ and Shairp always remained in touch throughout their lives, but there is no doubt that BJ's closest friend at St. Andrew's University was Lewis Campbell (q.v.).

Shelley ,  Lady Jane (d.1899), who married Percy Bysshe Shelley's son Sir Percy Florence in 1848. For all that BJ disliked Shelley's poetry, he was on friendly terms with Lady Shelley; several letters survive in which they discuss the Shelley memorial at University College, Oxford.

Simcox , Rev. William Henry (1843-1889) Balliol 1861, Fellow of Queens College, Oxford 1864-70. Classical Scholar. Pupil of BJ's, who BJ looked after in his own lodgings when he was ill, and over whom BJ always kept a friendly eye.

Sinclair , Ven. William Macdonald (1850-1917), Balliol 1868, Lecturer in Logic at King's College, London 1875, Examining Chaplain to four Bishops of London from 1877, Honorary Chaplain to Victoria, Edward VII and George V, Archdeacon of London and Canon of St. Paul's 1889-1911. Author of many theological works. Pupil of BJ's, who always maintained contact with him.

Smith , Arthur Lionel (1850-1924), Balliol 1869, Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford 1874-9, Tutor of Balliol 1879-82, Fellow of Balliol 1882-1916 and Master of Balliol 1916-1924. Historian, noted for his concern over workers' education. BJ and he always seem to have been on good terms (BJ oversaw the building of a house for Smith and his family at Holywell), and Smith has left us his own memoirs of BJ.

Smith , Prof. Goldwin (1823-1910), Stowell Professor of Law at University College, Oxford 1846-67, Regius Professor of History at Oxford 1858-68, first Professor of History at Cornell University, Ithace N.Y., 1868, and resident in Toronto from 1871. Historian and controversialist, much concerned with educational reform, social welfare, pacifism (in which he was an ardent believer) and politics, on all of which he wrote assiduously. Smith's interest in University reform ensured that he and BJ came to know each other in the early 1850s, and work together in this cause. However, they seem not to have been personal friends, and there is little indication that BJ tried to maintain contact with Smith after the latter's departure for America.

Smith , Prof. Henry John Stephen (1826-1883), Balliol 1844, Fellow of Balliol 1850-74, Savilian Professor of Geometry 1860-83, Fellow of Corpus Christi College 1873-83 and Fellow of the Royal Society. Distinguished Mathematician, especially in the theory of numbers. An early pupil of BJ, who remained a lifelong friend, even after his move to another college. Several speeches and letters, as well as some reminiscences, make it clear how deeply BJ felt his death.

Smith , Sir William (1813-1893), Editor of the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, which remain among the most important classical reference works in English. BJ contributed to both ventures (copies of some of his letters to Smith are in Balliol), but it seems that they had little further contact.

Sorabji , Cornelia (1867-1954), Somerville 1888 (the first woman to take the B.C.L.). Distinguished campaigner for woman's rights in India, who took a law degree at Oxford to become a lawyer for Indian women. BJ met her while she was at Oxford and took great interest in her progress. A lively letter from her to BJ (II C1/155), describing her life in India on her return there, somehow survived the destruction of his letters.

Spencer , Herbert (1820-1903) Philosopher of immense influence in the later 19th century, and supporter of evolution. Although he and BJ never met, BJ knew his works well, and seems to have thought very little of them.

Spottiswoode , William (1825-1883) Balliol 1842, President of the Royal Society 1878-83, Queen's Printer. Mathematician and physicist, with especial interest in determinants and light. It seems that Spottiswoode and BJ became friends at Balliol; whenever their friendship began, it was certainly deep and lasted until Spottiswoode's death. His death brought forth from BJ exceptionally warm tributes.

Stanley , Very Rev. Arthur Penrhyn (1815-1881) Balliol 1834, Fellow of University College, Oxford, 1838-51, Canon of Canterbury Cathedral, 1851-6, Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Oxford, 1856-63 and Dean of Westminster 1864-81. One of Thomas Arnold's favourite pupils at Rugby, who became a central figure alongside BJ in the Broad Church movement. BJ met Stanley soon after arriving at Balliol, and Stanley became BJ's closest friend in these early years. They worked together on plans for University reform, and planned a commentary on the Epistles of St. Paul, of which each produced one volume. However, it seems that although they always remained good friends, they grew apart with time, especially once Stanley moved to Westminster. BJ nonetheless always regarded Stanley as his oldest friend, and extended the friendship to his wife Lady Augusta (1822-1876). BJ's friendship with Stanley is especially noteworthy, because more letters to BJ have survived from Stanley than anyone else (about 160 are now preserved at Balliol as MS 410). They survived because BJ gave them to R.E. Prothero, Stanley's first biographer.

Stanley , Edward Lyulph, 4th Baron Stanley of Alderley and 4th Baron Sheffield of Roscommon (1839-1925) Balliol 1857, Fellow of Balliol 1862-9. Campaigner for educational reform, who sat on many government committees to assist his views. One of BJ's aristocratic pupils who went on to take a major role in public life, and who became a close friend of BJ's. They frequently travelled abroad together, and Stanley shared BJ's concern over education. His mother, Henrietta, Lady Stanley of Alderley and sister, Blanche, Lady Airlie (qq.v.) almost certainly got to know BJ through him and became close friends too. Stanley was a cousin of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (q.v.)

Stanley , Henrietta Maria, 2nd Lady Stanley of Alderley (1807-1895), mother of Edward Lyulph Stanley and Blanche, Lady Airlie (qq.v.). Important figure in women's education: a supporter of Queen's College, London 1848, and the Girls' Public Day School Company 1872, and a central figure in the founding of Girton College, Cambridge, in 1873. BJ and Lady Stanley first met c.1860 because he had taught her son Lyulph. Their mutual interest in education (although BJ never wholly agreed with her support for equal education for men and women) ensured that they became lifelong friends, who visited each other frequently. Copies of 70 of BJ's letters to her are at I F6.

Strachan-Davidson , James Leigh (1843-1916) Balliol 1862, Fellow of Balliol 1866-1907, Senior Dean 1874-1907 and Master 1907-1916. Classical Scholar, best known for his work on Roman Law. For many years BJ's right hand man at Balliol as Dean, he was considered a strong candidate to succeed him as Master, but had to wait to succeed Edward Caird (q.v.) instead. For all that BJ and Strachan-Davidson seem to have been close friends, the fact that they were at Balliol together has resulted in little direct trace of their friendship in the Jowett papers, although material in Strachan-Davidson's own papers shows his zeal in preserving BJ's memory (there is some dispute over whether his surname should be hyphenated or not, which is exacerbated by Stachan-Davidson's own inconsistency in this. On balance, he seems to have used the hyphen more often than not, and this practise is followed in the catalogue).

Strachey , General Sir Richard (1817-1898). Soldier, who fought in India, and then became heavily involved in the government of the country until his retirement in 1879. He also took more than an amateur's interest in science. BJ and he met more than once, and BJ was sufficiently interested in his company to note down several converations with him.

Stubbs , Rt. Rev. William, (1825-1901). Hon. Fellow and Chaplain of Balliol 1876, Regius Professor of Modern History 1866-84, Bishop of Chester 1884-7 and Bishop of Oxford 1888-1901. One of the most distinguished medieval historians of his day. It is unclear how he and BJ met, but they seem always to have been on good, if not close, terms.

Sweet-Escott , Hay (1816-1910), Balliol 1835. Headmaster of Somerset College, Bath 1858-73. Clergyman and teacher. Although not one of BJ's close friends, he often called on BJ when visitng Oxford.

Swinburne , Algernon Charles (1837-1909) Balliol 1856, Poet. Despite Swinburne's leaving Balliol without a degree, apparently for doing no work, and his unorthodox views and way of life, he and BJ became good friends. Swinburne often joined BJ on his reading parties, or visited him at Malvern, and wrote his own memoirs of BJ. BJ is generally considered to have been one of the very few steadying influences on Swinburne.

Symonds , John Addington (1840-1893) Balliol 1858. Man of letters, with especial interest in the Renaissance, who towards the end of his life became an early figure in the campaign for homosexual rights. Although he and BJ were not on especially good terms at first, relations soon warmed. BJ also became a good friend of Symonds' father, Dr. John Addington Symonds (1807-71) and Symonds' wife Catherine, and he was godfather to his daughter Charlotte. When in Europe, he frequently visited Symonds at Davos, and was asked by his widow to write an epitaph for him. Symonds' autobiography has some interesting vignettes of BJ. Charlotte Green (q.v.) was his sister.

Tait , Most Rev. Archibald Campbell (1811-1882) Balliol 1830, Fellow 1834-42, Headmaster of Rugby 1842-50, Dean of Carlisle 1850-1856, Bishop of London 1856-1868 and Archbishop of Canterbury 1868-1882. One of the most important Archbishops of Canterbury of the 19th century. While a tutor at Balliol, BJ was one of his pupils. Although they never seem to have been intimate, BJ and Tait always remained on friendly terms, even after the Essays and Reviews controversy, when Tait was manoeuvred into condemning the book: letters from BJ to Tait are preserved at Lambeth Palace, and jottings in BJ's commonplace books show that he visited Tait at Addington several times.

Taylor , Sir Henry (1800-1886). Civil servant and author, best known for the verse drama Philip van Artevelde. Campbell (A & C Vol. I p.401) suggests that BJ and Sir Henry first met in the mid-1860s. They were soon good friends, and from c.1870 BJ used to visit him and his family every year at Bournemouth until Sir Henry's death. His son Aubrey matriculated at Balliol in 1864, which may have been what first drew them together.

Temple , Most Rev. Frederick (1821-1902), Balliol 1839, Fellow 1842-8, Principal of Kneller Hall 1849-53, Headmaster of Rugby 1857-1869, Bishop of Exeter 1869-1885, Bishop of London 1885-1896 and Archbishop of Canterbury 1896-1902. One of the most important liberal Anglican clergymen of the 19th century. While at Balliol, he and BJ became close friends: they began to translate Hegel together, BJ dedicated his commentary on St. Paul to him, and both of them contributed to Essays and Reviews. After Temple became a bishop, and, after much pressure, asked that his contribution to the book be omitted from future editions, BJ felt that Temple had 'sold out'. Although there was never a complete breach, and they kept in contact (Temple took part in his funeral), BJ frequently expressed his displeasure at Temple's behaviour in his commonplace books and in letters to close friends like Morier (q.v.).

Tennyson , Alfred, 1st Lord Tennyson (1809-1892), Poet Laureate 1850-92. BJ and Tennyson first met in 1852 through the agency of Francis Palgrave (q.v.), and they became lifelong friends. BJ often stayed with Tennyson and his family at his home on the Isle of Wight. It seems that Tennyson's poem Akbar came from a suggestion of BJ's. Copies of letters from BJ to Tennyson's wife Emily (as well as some charming ones to Tennyson's children Hallam and Lionel), which survive at Balliol, bear witness to the affection which BJ felt for the whole family. BJ was a pall-bearer at Tennyson's funeral.

Thynne , John Alexander, 4th Marquess of Bath (1831-1896). Amabassador at Lisbon in 1858 and at Vienna in 1867. It is unclear how BJ and he met, and little reference to him is made in the biographies, but they seems to have met not infequently, to judge from references in the commonplace books to visits to Longleat, and notes of conversations with the Marquess. His son, later the 5th Marquess, matriculated at Balliol in 1881.

Tollemache , Hon. Lionel Arthur (1838-1919), Balliol 1856. Man of letters. A pupil of BJ, who set out his own memories of him in his Benjamin Jowett, a personal memoir, in which his closeness to BJ might seem to be exaggerated.

Toynbee , Arnold (1851-1883), Balliol 1875, Lecturer at Balliol 1878-83 and Senior Bursar 1881-3. Social Reformer and Economic Historian, whose early death only served to enhance his reputation. Toynbee originally went to Pembroke, but wanted to change to Balliol instead. The Jowett papers show the complexities of how, with BJ's assistance, he was able to do this (see I E19/1). BJ did much to spot Toynbee's potential, admiring him greatly (the feeling was returned), and Toynbee's wife Charlotte thought that BJ felt he had lost a son when Toynbee died. Toynbee Hall was founded in his memory.

Trevelyan , Sir Charles Edward, 1st Bt. (1807-1886), Governor of Madras 1859-61 (his tenure was cut short because of his public opposition to the financial policy of Calcutta), who in the early 1850s had reformed the Civil Service. BJ had assisted him in this, and the two men remained on good terms. In Anthony Trollope's The Three Clerks, a novel in part about these reforms, Sir Charles and BJ are caricatured respectively as 'Sir Gregory Hardlines' and 'Mr. Jobbles of Cambridge'.

Trevelyan , Sir George Otto, 2nd Bt. (1838-1928), son of Sir Charles (q.v.), Chief Secretary for Ireland 1882-4, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1884-5, Secretary for Scotland 1886 and 1892-5. Politician, and author of historical works. Presumably Sir George met BJ through his father, and seem to have been on good, if not close terms,

Turgenev , Ivan (1818-1893), Novelist. He visited BJ at Balliol more than once, including when he was awarded an Honorary D.C.L. at Oxford in 1879.

Vaughan , Very Rev. Charles John (1816-1897), Headmaster of Harrow 1844-59, Master of the Temple 1869-94 and Dean of Llandaff 1879-97. He was brother-in-law of A.P. Stanley (q.v.). Forced to leave Harrow after a scandal involving a boy there, Vaughan never achieved the high clerical office for which he had been marked out. For all that Vaughan's brother-in-law was one of BJ's best friends, and that BJ had travelled with his wife, it seems that they were never on close terms.

Vaughan , Henry Halford (1811-1885), Professor of Modern History at Oxford 1848-58. Much admired historian, who campaigned for university reform. It is considered that his published work does not do justice to his true stature. Contemporaries at Oxford together, Vaughan and BJ always seem to have known each other, and BJ supported his unsuccessful application for the Chair of Moral Philosophy in 1844.

Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise , Princess (1840-1901), eldest daughter of Queen Victoria, she married Crown Prince Friedrich of Prussia in 1858, who became the Emperor Friedrich III of Germany briefly in 1888. An implacable opponent of Bismarck and supporter of Liberalism. Robert Morier (q.v.) made her acquaintance when he was based in Germany, and prompted the Crown Princess to visit BJ occasionally at Balliol in the 1860s. One of the few letters written to BJ to survive was sent by her in 1867 (II A7/19). There was even a suggestion mooted between BJ and Morier, which came to nothing, to send her eldest son (later Emperor Wilhelm II) to Balliol.

Waldegrave , Hon. Rt. Rev. Samuel (1817-1869) Balliol 1835, Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford 1839-44, Residentiary Canon at Salisbury, 1857-60 and Bishop of Carlisle 1860-1869. Contemporary of BJ at Balliol, but there are no signs of any friendship between them.

Walker , Frederick William (1830-1910), High Master of Manchester Grammar School 1859-76, and Headmaster of St. Paul's School, 1876-1905. Schoolmaster respected for his educational reforms at the schools he ran. His son Richard was at Balliol in 1887-91. BJ and Walker seem to have known each other at least by 1871. In 1892/3, when the Charity Commissioners planned to alter radically the methods by which pupils were accepted at St. Paul's School, BJ supported Walker wholeheartedly (and successfully) to prevent his old school being changed for the worse.

Wall , Rev. Prof. Henry (1810-1873) Fellow of Balliol 1839-1871, Professor of Logic 1849-73. A conservative, who always supported Robert Scott (q.v.) when Master, Wall was much disliked by BJ, especially after the 1854 election, and the feeling seems to have been returned. Matters were probably only made worse if it is true that Wall beat BJ in his application to be the one married Fellow of Balliol in 1862. In such circumstances, it is not surprising that BJ made Wall's life as difficult as possible when he had the chance and that Wall retired from Balliol in 1871. On the other hand, Wall had been an extremely efficient Bursar, and BJ probably owed more to his work here than he ever admitted or realised.

Wallop , Lady Eveline Alicia Juliana, 5th Countess of Portsmouth (d.1906), who married the 5th Earl in 1855. In the 1870s it seems that BJ and the Countess were very close friends, and saw much of each other. Her son, Newton Wallop, Viscount Lymington (the 6th Earl after 1891), was at Balliol in 1875: it is not clear whether BJ met his mother because of Lymington's time at Balliol (as happened with Henrietta, Lady Stanley of Alderley [q.v.]), or Lymington went up to Balliol because of his parents' regard for BJ.

[General note on the Walronds: the Walrond family is an especially difficult one to sort out in the Jowett papers. BJ seems to have known many of them, and frequently will only refer to one of them by his surname, thus making it very difficult to tell them apart. Details are given of all the Walronds whom BJ certainly met, but it must be remembered that there are several cases where any one of them might fit]

Walrond , Francis Charles (1836-1904) Balliol 1855. Businessman. Brother of Theodore Walrond (Balliol 1842) and Maine Walrond (qq.v.). Pupil of BJ. His son Theodore Hunter Hastings Walrond was at Balliol in 1891-5.

Walrond , Rev. Maine Swete Alexander (1834/5-1899), Balliol 1853. Brother of Francis Charles Walrond and Theodore Walrond (qq.v.). Pupil of BJ. Little is known about him.

Walrond , Theodore (1824-1887), Balliol 1842, Fellow 1850-7, Civil Service Examiner 1856-63,, Secretary to Board 1863-75, Civil Service Commissioner 1875. Brother of Francis and Maine Walrond (qq.v.). Pupil of BJ, Theodore was closest to BJ of all the Walrond family. He was one of BJ's supporters as a Fellow at Balliol, and his later work for the Indian Civil Service kept them in close contact.

Ward , Mary Augusta (1851-1920), better known as Mrs. Humphry Ward, the title under which she published her novels. Novelist, whose most famous novel is probably Robert Elsmere, and social reformer, although she was hostile to the women's suffrage movement. She was the daughter of Thomas Arnold the younger, and niece of Matthew Arnold (q.v.). It is not known how BJ and she met (although BJ's links with her family ensured that they would come to know each other), but she soon became a regular visitor to Balliol.

Ward , William George (1812-1882), Fellow of Balliol 1834-45. One of the most dynamic Tutors at Balliol, who then became one of the most prominent Catholic converts of the 1840s, and a leading member of the ultramontane party in Britain. BJ was a close friend of Ward in his youth, even if they differed greatly over religious matters, although after Ward left Balliol, they saw very little of each other. BJ provided some affectionate reminiscences of Ward for his son Wilfred's biography William George Ward and the Oxford Movement (the letter is printed in Appendix D. pp.428-39; the original text is at I E25/11).

Warre , Rev. Preb. Edmond (1837-1920), Balliol 1855, Head Master of Eton 1884-1905, Provost of Eton 1909-1918. Distinguished schoolmaster, whose whole career, apart from his years at Balliol, was spent at Eton. Pupil of BJ's, with whom BJ always remained on excellent terms.

Warren , Prof. Sir Thomas Herbert (1853-1930), Balliol 1872, Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1877-85, President of Magdalen 1885-1928 and Vice-Chancellor 1906-10. Classical Scholar and educational reformer. A pupil of BJ, who claimed that he followed BJ's example in his running of Magdalen. One of the pall-bearers at BJ's funeral.

Watts , George Frederic (1817-1904), Artist, whose portrait of BJ is one of the few to give some indication of BJ's sterner side. During the sittings, BJ and he established a good rapport, as seen in the extensive notes BJ made of their conversations, but they seem never to have met elsewhere.

Wemyss-Charteris-Douglas , Anne Frederica, Viscountess Elcho (to 1883), 10th Countess of Wemyss and March (d.1896), wife of Francis Richard, the 10th Earl (1818-1914). It is not known how BJ and Lady Wemyss met (it may have been after her son Francis went to Balliol in 1864), but in BJ's later years she was one of his closest friends. Two of their younger sons, Hugo Richard (later the 11th Lord Wemyss) and Evan, went to Balliol in 1877 and 1887 respectively. Lord Wemyss was a politician, whose most important work was in his military reforms, especially when he was chairman of the National Rifle Association. Lady Wemyss introduced BJ to Margot Asquith (q.v.).

Wilberforce , Rt. Rev. Samuel (1805-73) Bishop of Oxford 1845-69 and of Winchester 1869-73. Generally thought to be one of the most influential bishops of his day (despite his cruel nickname of 'Soapy Sam'), Wilberforce leaned more to the high church wing of Anglicanism. BJ and he, unsurprisingly, were never on particularly good terms: BJ described him to A.P. Stanley (q.v.) as a 'semi-humbug' (III S6), and Wilberforce took a leading role in the campaign against Essays and Reviews. After Wilberforce's death, BJ's opinion of him seems to have softened, to judge from some of the comments on him in the commonplace books.

Williams , Rev. Prof. Rowland (1817-70), Vice-Principal and Professor of History at St. David's Theological College, Lampeter 1850-62. Liberal theologian, who contributed to Essays and Reviews, after which his career was ruined. It is unclear how well he and BJ knew each other.

Wilson , Rev. Henry Bristow (1803-1888), Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, 1825-50, and Rawlinsonian Professor of Anglo-Saxon 1839-44. Liberal theologian, who contributed to Essays and Reviews, and seems to have been its guiding force. Wilson and BJ had known each other from the early 1850s, but never seem to have been close friends, although it seems that it was he who asked BJ to contribute to Essays. Even after the furore caused by the book, they seem to have stayed on good terms, and worked together c.1870 to create a second series of essays, but these plans came to nothing.

Wilson , Prof. John Cook (1849-1915), Balliol 1868-73, Fellow of Oriel, 1874-89, Wykeham Professor of Logic at Oxford 1889-1915. Classical philosopher. Pupil of BJ's, who became a good friend.

Wolseley , Garnet Joseph, 1st Viscount (1833-1913), Adjutant-General 1885-90, Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Ireland 1890-5, and Commander-in-Chief of Her Majesty's Forces 1895-1900. Soldier, who campaigned forcefully to reform the defects in army organisation revealed by the Crimean War. BJ and he do not seem to have met often, but BJ did invite Wolseley on at least one occasion to lecture at Oxford, and wrote to him about the University Cadets.

Woollcombe , Rev. Edward Cooper (1816-1880) Oriel 1833, Fellow of Balliol 1838-80. Dean of Balliol 1841-74. Woollcombe has never had a good press: Pattison in his memoirs remembers him as as an undergraduate of great but unfulfilled promise, and at Balliol he left a reputation for amiable ineffectuality. BJ certainly had very little time for him (it did not help that Woollcombe was a supporter of Robert Scott [q.v.]); his letters make clear that although he considered Woollcombe a good man, he also thought him ineffective and excessively conservative, and that Balliol was well rid of him.

Wright , Sir Robert Samuel (1839-1904), Balliol 1856-60, Fellow of Oriel 1861-80, Judge of the Queen's Bench Division, High Court of Justice 1890-1904. Lawyer and author of legal treatises. A pupil of BJ's, he became a lifelong friend: BJ often visited Wright's house at Hampshire, where he always felt greatly at home, and it was there that he died.


Explanatory Index of Classicists, Philosophers and Theologians referred to by BJ in the Jowett Papers.

In his work on classics, theology and philosophy, BJ frequently discusses the work of other scholars in these fields. All these men's names, with references, are given in the Index of Writers Consulted by BJ (Index III); the following list, provides, where possible, their full names, dates, nationalities and special areas of research.

Baur, Ferdinand Christian (1782-1860). German theologian.

Bekker, Immanuel (1785-1871). German textual critic.

Bernays, Jacob (1824-1881). German scholar specialising in Biblical and Greek studies.

Boekh, August (1875-1867). German Greek scholar.

Bohme, Jacob (fl. 17th century). German philosopher.

Bopp, Franz (1791-1867). German comparative philologist.

Bunsen, Christian  Karl Josias von (1791-1860). German theologian.

Comte, Auguste (1798-1857). French philosopher, creator of the 'Positivist' school.

Curtius, Ernst (1814-1896). German Greek historian.

Daub, Carl (fl.1818-1844). German theologian.

Delbrück, Bernhard (fl.1871-1904). German philologist.

Donaldson, John William (1811-1861). British Greek scholar.

Erdmann, Johann Edward (1805-1892). German theologian.

Ewald, Georg Heinrich August (1803-1875). German theologian.

Gfrörer, August Friedrich (1803-1861). German theologian.

Greswell, Edward (fl.1830). British theologian.

Griesbach, Johann Jacob (1745-1812). German theologian, specialising in New Testament studies.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770-1831). German philosopher.

Hermann, Gottfried (1772-1848). German classical scholar.

Humboldt, Wilhelm von (1767-1835). German philospher and statesman.

Kirchoff, Adolf (1826-1908). German ancient epigraphist.

Lachmann, Karl (1793-1851). German textual critic of both Greek and Latin.

Martin, Thomas Henri (1813-1884). French classical scholar, editor of Plato's Timaeus.

Mommsen, Theodor (1817-1903). German historian.

Neander, Johann August Wilhelm (1789-1850). German church historian.

Niebuhr, Barthold Georg (1776-1831). Danish classical scholar, who lived in Germany. Best known for his History of Rome.

Nitzch, probably Georg Wilhelm (1818-1880). German Greek scholar.

Olshausen, Hermann (1796-1839). German commentator on the New Testament.

Paul, Hermann (fl. later 19th cent.) German comparative philologist.

Poppo, Ernst Friedrich (1794-1861). German editor of Thucydides.

Porson, Richard (1759-1808). British classical scholar.

Pott, (fl. later 19th cent.) German comparative philologist.

Ranke, Leopold von (1795-1886). German historian.

Ritter, Joseph Ignaz (1787-1857). German church historian.

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775-1854). German philosopher

Schlegel, either August Wilhelm von (1767-1845) or Karl Wilhelm Friedrich von (1772-1829), both German classical and oriental scholars.

Schleicher, August (1821-1868). German theologian and philologist.

Schleiermacher, Friedrich David Ernst (1768-1834). German theologian and writer on Plato.

Schwegler, Albert (1819-1857). German editor of Aristotle's Metaphysics.

Spinoza, Benedict de (1632-1677)

Strauss, David Friedrich (1808-1874). German theologian, author of Das Leben Jesu.

Tholuck, Friedrich August Gottreu (1799-1877). German theologian and orientalist.

Usteri, Leonard (fl. 1830s). German commentator on St. Paul.

de Wette, Martin Wilhelm (fl 1805-1846). German theologian.

Wolfe, Friedrich August (1759-1824). German Greek scholar, best known for his work on Homer.

Zeller, Eduard (1814-1908). German historian of Greek philosophy, best known for his work on the Pre-Socratics.

[1] She was Augusta Parker by her first marriage (in 1874). Her first husband died in 1881, and in 1890 she married Thomas Nash.

- Robin Darwall-Smith, 1993

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